Problems Arising from Motor Impairment Essay Assignment Paper

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Problems Arising from Motor Impairment Essay Assignment Paper

Motor disability is a general term used to refer to disabilities that hamper an individual’s capacity to execute motor tasks like lifting objects and moving. According to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 standards (DSM-5), a condition is considered to be a motor disability if “it makes a person have motor coordination that is significantly below what would be expected for his/her age” (Binzer, Andersen & Kullgren, 2005, p. 85). Motor disability is common in people with cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, Parkinson’s disease, and arthritis.Problems Arising from Motor Impairment Essay

Visuo-motor Coordination
Visuomotor coordination (VMC) impairment is common among individuals suffering from Parkinson’s disease. Inzelberg, Schechtman, and Hocherman (2008) allege, “Early studies ascribe the deficit in VMC to a difficulty in generating an inner model of the tracking task and in utilizing predictive planning in an “open-loop” model” (p. 5). Studies show that people who suffer from VMC impairment are unable to “assimilate the extent and speed of target movement during tracking” (Inzelberg et al., 2008, p. 7). Also, people with VMC impairment are unable to control their hands when doing a tracing or free-hand drawing exercise.Problems Arising from Motor Impairment Essay

Challenges in Writing and Drawing
People express their feelings and thoughts through drawing and writing. Indeed, the inability to write or draw may affect one’s learning development. Drawing and writing require accuracy and excellent co-ordination. Individuals with visuomotor coordination challenges are deficient of the standard redundancy in movement schemes. Hence, they are unable to acclimatize to task constraints. Smits-Engelsman, Niemeijer and Van Galen (2001) posit that children with VMC disorders face challenges in writing. No matter how hard teachers try to assist children with the VMC deficit, they do not acquire writing skills. People who are not familiar with VMC impairment may think that the children are ignorant or careless.


Individuals with visuomotor coordination impairment have problems in handwriting and drawing. Visuomotor coordination impairment leads to victims developing incoherent motor traits. Persons with a VMC deficit exhibit a high level of spontaneous movements (dyskinesia). Moreover, they show “faster movements, fewer velocity peaks and fewer pauses above a paper” (Smits-Engelsman et al., 2001, p. 118). Consequently, they are unable to draw or write correctly. Visuomotor coordination deficit leads to individuals developing tremors. As a result, they are forced to use immense phasic stiffness to control shaking. They apply a lot of pressure on the pen making it hard to draw or write. Moreover, they are unable to write smoothly and in a straight line, thus making the handwriting appear crooked. The study shows that physiotherapy can help individuals suffering from VMC challenges to improve their handwriting and drawing skills. The problem lies in determining the therapeutic factors that change motor executions in different victims.Problems Arising from Motor Impairment Essay

Cases of Motor Impairment
Many people suffer from motor impairment. Examples of people with motor impairment include Elaine and Deborah. Elaine is passionate about outdoor activities as well as painting. However, she suffers from cerebral palsy and cannot use her hands. Elaine uses both improvised brushes and her foot to draw. Moreover, she uses Velcro fasteners when painting big pictures. Elaine anticipates getting a laptop, Corel Painter and a graphic tablet, which will facilitate her painting career (Young, 2008). On the other hand, Deborah suffers from arthritis. Despite her predicament, she is a member of a music band. She was taken through a course to facilitate her artwork. Deborah received drawing software as a way to facilitate her work (Young, 2008). The software enabled her to incorporate photography into art. Besides, her laptop was set up on a table in such a way that she can use it together with a graphics tablet. The course helped Deborah regain driving confidence.Problems Arising from Motor Impairment Essay

Binzer, M., Andersen, P., & Kullgren, G. (2005). Clinical characteristics of patients with motor disability due to conversion disorder: A prospective control group study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 63(1), 83-88.

Inzelberg, R., Schechtman, E., & Hocherman, S. (2008). Visuo-motor coordination deficits and motor impairments in Parkinson’s disease. Public Library of Science, 3(11), 1-8.

Smits-Engelsman, B., Niemeijer, A., & Van Galen, G. (2001). Fine motor deficiencies in children diagnosed as DCD based on poor grapho-motor ability. Human Movement Science, 20(1), 161-182.

Young, G. (2008). Autonomy of artistic expression for adult learners with disabilities. International Journal of Art & Design Education, 27(2), 116-125. Problems Arising from Motor Impairment Essay

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