Nursing Theorists Works Essay Assignment Paper

Nursing Theorists Works Essay Assignment Paper

Nursing Theorists Works Essay Assignment Paper

Nursing is flourishing the health facilities, promotion, and development of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, through diagnosis and treatment of a person’s psychological and physiological behavior , and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations. (American Nurses Association (ANA).The basic perception one gets of the word nursing is to take care,it is a profession of providing care for the sick one. Nursing provides health care to the individuals and communities, thus its social importance should be recognized and should be number one public priority .Nursing Theorists Works Research Paper A strong and intelligent person is required who should be emphatic and should be psychologically strong to aid the ill one . Earlier nursing was considered as a job to carry out the instructions of the physicians, but over the period of time, it is taken into consideration that they merely carry out the instructions of the physician. They should be trained to provide care to the patients in their own right way, whether it is the physical care or manipulation of the environment or the situation for patient’s well being. This paper will explore the historical aspects of nursing and that all patients with illness and problems require care which should be beyond any racism, socio economic disturbances, psychological or cultural differences. The first section of this paper will discuss the relationship of development of nursing theory to the profession of nursing , its influence or impact both socially and medically, also the structure of nursing reasoning would be highlighted and strategies to further substantiate this process would be discussed. Finally the essay will conclude with further developments in nursing theories to the profession.Nursing Theorists Works Research Paper

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What Do We Know About the History?

The history of nursing is as old as medicines, the midwife used to assist during child birth and this was considered as her prime duty. Over the period of time, the practice of nursing dramatically enhanced and also improved to great deal. In regard to roughly the first formal nursing center or the beginning of this profession,”The Sisters of Charity” (1633) was founded by St. Vincent de Paul, for taking care of people in the hospitals and asylums. The Sisters of Charity were introduced by Mother Elizabeth Seton in 1809 in America, known to be “Daughters of Charity” later. The history of nursing helps us to focus on the societal factors and the issues that might be the hindrances in this profession. In the American revolutionary war (1775-1783), the sick suffered much and women provided their nursing services and also a matron was allotted to attend to every 100 sick or wounded. The Civil War (1861-1865) played a vital role in the growth of Nursing in the United States where women provided humanitarian services both to the union and confederate armies. In the Spanish- American war (1898) potentially qualified women were appointed and this profession was taken seriously and many women signed governmental contracts some nurses even died during their duty oblivious of their own health as they were so involved in their profession. these later became the permanent corps of the Medical department (Army Reorganization Act (31 Stat. 753)).During World War I (1917-1918), almost 12,000 nurses were on active duty and served almost 198 stations and more than 400 nurses sailed to France to provide medical assistance to them. More than 200 also died during their jobs due to influenza and diphtheria. Col. Anna Mae Hays was promoted to brigadier general after attaining a Flag Rank for the first time in the history of American army on June 11, 1970, in Vietnam serving the fighting forces. Manifestation of nursing can also be seen in the Korean War (1950-1953), that served in Mobile Army Surgical Hospitals (MASH). Role played by these great human beings who served as Nurses in the History and served Humanity to the last of their breaths, was the real milestone in the formation of nursing theories that shaped into full time profession that we know today.Nursing Theorists Works Research Paper

Nursing Theories and their Applications in the Profession

Now talking about the theories which throw light on the prominent role of nurses and the major impact they have on the society as a whole, Florence Nightingale (mother and founder of nursing) during civil war observed that the duty of nurse is not only to assist the physician .Considering this point of view and keeping in view its emerging need she proposed first theory of nursing that centered facilitation of body’s reparative processes by altering the surrounding environment. This theory is a stepping stone for further nursing theories. Theory of Peplau (1952) and King (1971) takes into account the importance of communicating with patients that help them to recover rapidly. Peplau states that nursing is actually a service in specific situation to facilitate patients in their natural ongoing tendencies and make the environment more suitable for recovery. It refers nursing as an educative instrument that can be used to promote constructive and productive community living.”The theory of Orlando( 1962) , Johnson’s (1968) and Rogers (1970)focuses that the client’s (patient) have certain needs that are when fulfilled, minimizes stress and provide increase competence and euphoria. This shows how a person overcomes the psychological and physiological pain in this respect the major part is done by the nurse who ought to be mentally and emotionally strong. The goal of nursing is to lessen the anxiety and provide a stress free environment to the client to move towards recovery (Johnson, 1968). Orem (1971) and Roy (1979) theories are Self-care depict theories, that state that nursing becomes important for all those patients who are unable, due to the lack of self care or relatives or family, to fulfill their human need be it biological, psychological or social. Thus nursing can be described as a humanistic aspect of life. (Watson, 1979). All these theories substantiate the efforts and the work nurses perform and that their role is equally efficient and cannot be neglected when compared to a doctor or physician.Nursing Theorists Works Research Paper

Nursing theory consists of four levels, practice level that consists of four step i.e. factor isolating, factor relating, situation relating and situation-producing control. The second level of nursing theory i.e. middle range theory focuses on research and practice, this level is highly important and is the foundation on which the capabilities of nurses depend largely. Third level of nursing theory i.e. grand theory broadens the perspective for nursing practice in the global viewpoint. The forth level of nursing theory is Meta theory, which is abstract of the experiences of nurses from around the world of different situations and structures.

“To achieve the benefits of a defined body of theory in nursing a better patient care, enhanced professional status for nurses, improved communication between nurses, and guidance for research and education is required” (Nolan, 1996) Nursing theories have defined the goals and framework of nursing that is to deliver nursing care for individual, to assist the client gain his independence as rapidly as possible, and reduce his anxiety by manipulating the environment to pace up his recovery. Help client achieve maximal level of wellness and to sustain the confidence in him so that the patient is optimistic about his health and use of communication to help client to re establish adaptation to environment are the fundamental goals of nursing.

Clinical Reasoning

Human being have two major systems, the biological system focuses on medicine, and behavioral system focuses on nursing, in fact a nurse has to take the responsibility of both. It is the duty of the nurse to understand about patient’s problem whether it is mental or physical, from initial meeting through diagnosis, treatment, recovery or unfortunate death and should morally train the patient to face everything. This process when undergone with different situations and subjects, evolves into a clinical reasoning.

Clinical reasoning is to develop a solution after applying knowledge and expertise to a certain clinical situation (Carr, S., 2004). It has its own merits and uses that help to automate awareness of their own knowledge that can be applied in the professional field to yield new developments and understandings.Nursing Theorists Works Research Paper

In nursing, clinical reasoning skills help in comprehending and the practice. Clinical reasoning form basis of research studies. These researches use processes and innovative strategies of the used by the experienced nurses to improve the existing nursing structures or devise the new ones. Although this is a useful method but it requires a strong and quick thinking process in during which a nurse isn’t expected to panic and should deal the situation wisely. It is basically dependent on ability to describe and verbalize the reasoning process. More nursing research is needed to explore the clinical reasoning process. Therefore, Investment in teaching and learning methods is needed to enhance clinical reasoning skills in nurses.

Analysis and Conclusion

The importance of nursing profession cannot be denied and this is accounted as a prominent profession which is mandatory for the social development and ensures the basic health facilities to the individuals. It might not have got the due importance hence to rectify the negligence and to elevate the status of this profession and nurses as a whole certain steps should be taken. The impact of self regulated reflective learning skills should be well checked, teaching and learning process both should complement each other to get the desired results in short; metacognative, critical thinking skills , reflective and clinical reasoning developments should be made. An analysis into cognitive and metacognative thinking initiates a more appropriate global learning process.

Nursing guidelines are important as they ensure a formal and uniform outline whereby nurses act according to the prescribed laws and it aids in developing a better understanding and response for the various and complementary roles that nurses have.Training institutes should be made especially for teaching and proper training of nurses in this respect government ought to perform an important role by increasing the salaries of nurses and also subsidizing these training institution.Nursing Theorists Works Research Paper

The Importance of Nursing Theory in Advanced Practice Nurses

A nursing theory according to Lee (2013) is a set of definitions, propositions, concepts, and assumptions that are derived from nursing models or other subjects that assists nurses to predict, describe, explain and prescribe diseases. In nursing, there are many nursing theories that assist nurse when it comes to the practice of care. The pioneers of nursing, for example, Florence Nightingale, Nola Pender among others came up with these theories. According to Florence Nightingale, for example, nurses have an obligation to offer a safe and caring environment that supports the patient’s health (Lynch, 2015). This paper will explore Pender’s nursing theory that was invented in 1982. In this theory, Pender argued that the health promotion behaviors have a way of resulting in improved health. For example, a smoker who chooses to quit smoking and instead of smoking engages in an exercise to keep himself busy; his health is likely to change from bad to good or better. Quitting smoking and exercising are examples of health promotion behaviors that Nola Pender proposes. The main intent of this paper is to explore the health promotion theory by Nola Pender. The next part of the paper will examine the importance of nursing theories and review the health promotion model. The latter part of this paper will show how the health promotion model by Pender can be applied in the nursing practice to only assist nurses in learning the practice of care but also help the community at large.Nursing Theorists Works Research Paper

Nola Pender health promotion theory was enacted to compliment counterparts of theory in nursing towards health protection. According to the theory, health is a positive dynamic state and not the absence of diseases. Pender argues that there are a couple of ways in which people can interact with the environment towards pursuing their health. Health promotion theory focuses on three main areas that include individual characteristics, behaviour specific cognitions and affect and the behaviour outcomes. As Pender notes, every person on the face of the earth has unique personal characteristics that affect their subsequent actions. When it comes to behaviour specific cognitions, there are a set of variables that result in motivational significance. The theory proposes that people should behave in a way that improves one’s health. Despite the fact that a person may be willing to adopt health-promoting behaviors, there are a couple of barriers to action that people face. Things that include personal struggle of certain behavior affect the implementation of behaviour. However, a person who learns about the perceived benefit is much willing to pursue the health promotion behaviour.

Importance of Nursing Theory

According to Smith & Parker (2015), nursing theories provide the nurse with guidance in many ways. Theories also enhance the nurse sense of belonging and identity when it comes to helping patients. In the healthcare society, the nursing theories can be used in showing the nurse their role and responsibility in this great career. This part explores the importance of nursing theories in general. When it comes to nursing education, the nursing theories should be highly incorporated. Through this incorporation, nurses learn the concepts of care, techniques, and strategies to use, diagnosing diseases and coming up with treatment plans among many other things. For example, through Pender’s nursing theory, nurses get to understand that health is not the absence of the diseases. In this case, nurses get to learn and use the said assumptions. For example, Pender argued that individuals seek to regulate their own behaviors. In this case, nurses learn their responsibility in promoting health. They also get to learn the patient’s responsibility in their health and how they can educate the patients towards the same.

Through the nursing theories, the nurses get in a position to identify the patient’s needs, enhance effective patient-nurse communication, effectively assess the condition of the patients and effectively design techniques to assist patients. According to Smith & Parker (2015), nurses can use theories to generate new knowledge concerning various issues. The nurse theoretical that are found in the theories have compressive ideas about nursing care. In this case, Smith & Parker (2015) argue that the theories are not only imperative in the discipline but also in the profession. Apart from helping the nurses when it comes to patient’s care and knows their identity, the nursing theories are also been used to teach the other healthcare professionals on the vital role of nurses.Nursing Theorists Works Research Paper

From the above analysis, it is evident that the nursing theories are large contributing to nursing care and practice. Through many concepts that are taught in many of these theories, it becomes easy for the nurse to care for their patients effectively. However, nursing theories are also complex where many relationships connect various concepts. In some cases, these relationships do not connect to the ultimate end point of the nursing care. Nursing profession is also different from other professionals. For example, patient’s satisfaction rules the roost in that patients are the main focus. Other elements that are different include nursing ethics.


Health Promotion Model Summary

The health promotion theory was initially introduced in 1982. However, the theory was later revised in 1996 to incorporate more concepts. In her work, Pender argues that health is not the absence of diseases (Pender, Murdaugh & Parsons, 2006). The personal factors that affect an individual’s health include psychological, biological and socio-cultural factors. The three factors are imperative to one’s health. For example, the personal biological behaviors include one’s strength, age, and aerobic capacity among others. When it comes to the psychological factors, this includes self motivation, competence, and esteem among others. Nursing Theorists Works Research Paper  The last personal factor is the socio-cultural factor that involves race, ethnicity, and acculturation among others. When it comes to the race, for example, some illnesses are prevalent in one race compared to other races. All the above factors (socio-cultural, psychological and biological) affect one’s health in one way or another.

There are four metaparadigms that include person, health, and environment and nursing profession. When it comes to person, it evaluates the individual who is the primary focus of the model. In this case, the patient is the primary focus. The environment refers to the physical, interpersonal and economic status that the person lives in. Health involves the positive high level state. When it comes to nursing, this involves the role of nursing. In this model, the nursing role includes raising awareness related to the health promoting behaviors. Others include promotion of self efficacy, controlling of the environment with the main aim of supporting positive behaviour. The last activity includes managing change barriers.

Pender’s Theory Importance to Master Program

As a Family nurse practitioner Master Nurse Student, there are many ways in which this theory can shape my practice. With aims of interconnecting theory into practice, Family nurse practitioners always try to fix evidence based knowledge into practice. As Smith & Parker (2015) note in their work, as nurse advance in their education, they get to know how various theories shape into their lives not only as nurses but also as individuals. For someone to understand the theory behind actions, it is imperative for the nurse student to explore the in-depth knowledge of this theory. Through this theory, the family nurse practitioner master students will also understand the behaviors that promote health. On the other hand, they will know how to eliminate them that don’t. In addition, the students get to understand what Pender meant when she argued that health is not the absence of diseases.Nursing Theorists Works Research Paper 

Application of the theory in Nursing Practice

According to the author of this theory, its main aim is to assists nurses when it comes to an understanding the health behavioral factors that promote peoples lifestyle (Pender, Murdaugh and Parsons, 2006). When it comes to health promotion, I will use the theory to educate my patients and society about the health promotions behaviors that they should adopt. As a Family nurse practitioner, I will walk with my patients towards behavioral change that will positively contribute to health promotion. This theory views the family nurse practitioner as a professional who works towards family centered health promotion. In this case, the professionals should always view the health conditions as a changing variable that will allow them to interpret how environmental influences affect the client’s awareness. Through the use of this theory’s philosophy, family nurse practitioners will be in a position to shape the consumer characteristics that will result in an improved quality of life and functioning.

As a family nurse practitioner, I have regularly implemented Pender’s concepts of health promotion. I was working with a lung cancer patient a few months ago. Despite the patient being at the 3rd stage of the disease, he was a chain smoker. I used the Pender’s concepts on patient education and educated the client. After few months, the patient successfully quit smoking. In January, an overweight woman approached me because of her back pain issues. After interrogating her, I realized that her weight was the main issue. I educated the woman on the importance of exercise and good eating habits. The patient adapted my recommendations and currently, her weight has significantly reduced and back pains seized.Nursing Theorists Works Research Paper

Many people have commented on the use of the health promotion when it comes to patient education and the promotion of the health behaviors. According to sentiments that were offered by Bredow and Peterson in 2009, Pender theory has to a larger extent changed the nursing purpose from disease prevention to health promotion. Wu and Pender (2002) argue that when it comes to education and health promotion, the health promotion theory uses diagnosis, interventions and assessment that are reliable.


Nursing theories are imperative when it comes to nursing care. When it comes to Pender’s theory of health promotions, it has largely contributed to the nursing career. Through this theory, nurses are in a position to describe, analyze and assist patients. In addition, the nurse can use this theory with aims of trying to understand the patient’s specific needs and nurture patient-nurse communication. Unlike other nursing theories that identify nurses with their tasks, Pender’s encourages the nurse to identify themselves with what they know. Because of these unique elements, nurses are in a position to see themselves beyond the immediate task that they are given to undertake. In this case, the nurses largely focus on acquiring vast knowledge that helps them in dealing with future nursing challenges.Nursing Theorists Works Research Paper Through this vast knowledge, nurses are in a position to offer the very best service to their patients. Pender proposes the changes of the risky behaviors to behaviors that promote health. In one of her assumptions, Pender believes that the services that the nurses give to the patients are for a lifetime. However, this assumption is research-based and it is not applicable. Despite this one assumption that is not research based, the theory has a greater role in the nursing career. From this assignment, I got to learn that nurse plays a great role in the society and with the information that they offer to the patients, the patient’s lives may be changed for good. Therefore, I believe that it is important for the nurse to study these theories earlier in advance to gain acquire information that assists in effective helping patients.

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