Marginalized Women Essay Assignment Paper
Marginalized Women Essay Assignment Paper
To ensure the delivery of safe high quality care, primary care providers must be knowledgeable about the unique health care challenges of marginalized women. One marginalized group that will be encountered in the primary care setting that demands attention is past incarcerated women. According to the Department of Justice, there are currently over 2 million incarcerated individuals in the United States and with consistent reports over the last several decades demonstrating that women account for approximately 6%-8% of the total imprisoned population (Kaeble & Cowhig, 2018). This disproportionate mix of incarcerated individuals constitutes women as a marginalized group once outside the walls of the justice system. While imprisonment plays a vital role in curbing crime, incarcerated women reintegrating into society encounter significant economic struggles, substantial health care disparities, and several ethical issues. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of incarcerated women. The prevalence of incarcerated women at a national, state, and local level is included followed by the discussion of the economic inequality, health care disparities, and ethical concerns that encompasses the process of reentering society. Finally, a well-developed evidenced based health management action plan is offered that addresses these concerns and helps facilitate the delivery of safe, high quality patient care.Marginalized Women Essay
Marginalisation is the powerlessness and exclusion experienced by a group, resulting from an inequality of control of ‘resources and power structures’ (Kenny 1999 p 22) within society. Feminism argues that woman are marginalised due the patriarchal structure of society (Andrews 200 p28). In an attempt to explore my own position in society as a woman, I have chosen to research the marginalisation experienced by women in terms of gender, class and age. I have taken a sociological approach to my research, which included a literature review of sociological papers written in relation to gender, class and age, and two interviews with a woman (who for the purposes of confidentiality, will be referred to as Sally), about how being a woman has affected her life experiences. By comparing the information given by Sally, to the previous research conducted by sociologists, I will identify examples of how women are marginalised in modern society, and reflect on these findings to broaden my own understanding of womanhood.Marginalized Women Essay
Social Science is an area of study which ‘attempts to explain social phenomena’, such as marginalisation, by using systematic and scientific methods to analyse ‘the social world’ (Lucas 2004 p7). Sociology is a branch of Social Science, and explores the relationship between people and society (Lucas 2004 p 21). A sociological approach to research examines ‘how the larger societal context can provide social or cultural explanations for social behaviour’ (Lucas 2004:21). Therefore the interviews conducted for this research focused on how the interviewee’s experiences affect her perception of her social status. The first interview was informal and consisted of unstructured questions relating to Sally’s age, gender, class, religion, race and ethnicity.
William Shakespeare has often been criticized for his depiction of women in his plays and stories. And for good measure; his plays’ female leads are often antagonists, or at best secondary to their male counterparts. While this is quite simply a byproduct of the time in which Shakespeare lived, it nonetheless raises questions about the English author’s ideologies and personal beliefs.Marginalized Women Essay
Check out this sample essay on the Shakespearean marginalization of women. It offers a great deal of insight into some of the author’s most famous plays, such as Hamlet and Twelfth Night, and comments on why the famous Englishmen chose to write they way he did. If you would like to buy a custom essay sample on a Shakespearean work or any other topic, consider working with a talented writer from Ultius.
The Shakespearean treatment of women
The depiction of women in literature has varied significantly in relation to the historical context and authorship. In writing many works that incorporated the roles of women in society, Shakespeare’s works have been influential in using women as scapegoats to idealize broader themes of marginalization and complicity. Mainly, works like Hamlet, Twelfth Night and The Tempest depicted women in a negative light with respect to how feminine qualities and sexuality were either tools of deceit or inherently negative facets of womanhood.
To begin, it is important to realize that Shakespeare’s audience reflected entertainment oriented towards males. Indeed, Shakespeare’s ubiquitous usage of sexual themes and plots defines the extent to which males are going to have a strong interest. Jami Ake argued in “Glimpsing a ‘Lesbian’ Poetics in ‘Twelfth Night’” that Shakespeare profoundly uses sexual themes in order to “solidify elite, male homosocial bonds” (Ake, 377). Essentially, many works that share sexual themes are tailored to represent a male perspective. These male perspectives work by personifying women as having traits that represent male frustration. One of the major themes explored that shares this facet is the concept of Petrarchan, or unattainable love. This theme is evident throughout Shakespearean works and very clearly depicts women as being the paradigm of male frustration and angst.Marginalized Women Essay
Hamlet – Love as an example
Indeed, it is important to realize that Shakespeare’s personifications of women as deceitful are also based on the notions that love and feminine traits are painted negatively. For tragic works like Hamlet, this is especially evident as the main character is often portrayed as being weak on the basis of having female traits. For instance, his cowardice when walking past Claudius is indicative of his passivity, an attribute that is associated with women. In fact, James Stone argued in “Androgynous ‘Union’ and the woman in Hamlet” that Hamlet spent the greater portion of the play trying to rid himself of feminine qualities like cowardice, sexuality and desire through suicide (Stone, 72-27). Surely, in using male characters to characterize feminine traits as being negative dimensions of Hamlet, Shakespeare was subtly reflecting his attitude towards women and their role in frustrating males. Aside from using this character in order to depict women’s traits as negative, Shakespeare also focused on perverting Gertrude’s presence.
Related Sample: Read a sample on Hamlet: The Youthful Interpretation.
The portrayal of Gertrude idealized women’s roles as being that of sexual desire and the evils that stem from it. As Hamlet struggled to rid himself of his innate feminine qualities that he exhibited throughout the play, Shakespeare spared no mercy in depicting Gertrude as one of the more despicable characters in any of his plays. For example, Stone characterized Gertrude’s presence as having no limits to the brink of human disgust: “nothing is taboo, including incest, adultery and murder” (Stone, 72). Indeed, the role of Hamlet’s mother was that of a woman who married her husband’s brother after he was killed. The driving force behind Gertrude’s behavior could have easily been political, social or for another reason; however, Hamlet’s interpretation and Shakespeare’s depiction of the story based the event on Gertrude’s lustful behavior. To exemplify, Stone remarked that “Hamlet curse[d] the lust that hasten[ed] Gertrude to an incestuous remarriage, a lust that patently belie[d] her masking self-representation…” (Stone, 75). The negative connotations that are ascribed to Hamlet’s mother transcend any notion of her being a good wife, mother or family oriented individual. By being portrayed as driven by lust and desire, Shakespeare effectively illustrated that man’s frustration with women stems from their inability to reason and think critically without adhering to their personal desires.Marginalized Women Essay
In the Twelfth Night, women are portrayed in a much more deceitful and racy light, albeit much more subtly and without murderous implications. For instance, the whole notion of love is perverted in itself. While the Petrarchan conventions of wooing are followed directly by Orsino in his pursuit of Olivia, the relationships carried on the by the women and other character represent manipulation, seduction and power more than love. David Schalkwyk argued that the concepts of love and service are bound to this play because “power and desire-have replaced love” (76). For being a Shakespearean Comedy, themes of power and desire surely carry much more serious undertones. The much more serious dimensions of this play reflect Thomas Clayton’s characterization that this work is more adequately labeled as a “quasi-Dark comedy” (354). Of course, the darkness is in that the Duke is fooled and subject to chasing a woman while she is also being pursued by the Duke’s serviceman, Viola. The fact that the women stereotypically occupy roles of deceit and male frustration highlight the notion that women are portrayed in a negative light. The male audience is much more inclined to perceive this work as a story of male deceit and treachery as opposed to one of comedy.Marginalized Women Essay
Of course, women are also personified as being inherently deceitful and racy for the fact that Shakespeare introduced homoerotic concepts into it. Again, despite the story being primarily focused on being a love story of longing and wooing on behalf of the Duke, Shakespeare found an interesting way to negatively portray women by including what Ake remarked as being “pastoral poetics of female desire in Viola’s conversation with Olivia” (Ake, 376). Because Viola was a woman, she openly had opportunities to display her emotional feelings towards Olivia, despite the Duke’s intentions. Again, the context of love, desire, eroticism and relationships are skewed towards being done in deceit, treachery and at angst for the male involved. Just like Hamlet’s mother practiced her desire in a form that made her look immoral, the same applied to Viola and Olivia’s relationship. The tendency for Shakespearean works like these to perverse romance and love exemplifies the notion that the author surely attacked traits that fall into the realm of womanhood.Marginalized Women Essay
In addition, The Tempest is another great example that illustrates the same perversion of core womanly traits and societal reinforcement of gender roles through literary depictions of women. Throughout the play, the notion of romance is used as driving force for driving critical plot pivots where the action takes place. However, the marginalization of romance, and simultaneously women, is a common literary trait of Shakespeare’s works in which women bear the pain of having love become a facet of tragedy or absurdity. For example, Katrin Trüstedt argued that “romance has…become an object of attack, a reference point that is taken up, transformed, and turned into something of a grotesque, absurd, comic, witty kind” (Trüstedt, 350). While this is a literary tool is effective in developing the plot and creating a more interesting story line, it is nonetheless indicative of Shakespeare’s common themes that he brings up. By consistently utilizing womanly facets of behavior and emotion like romance, love and desire for the sake of depicting deceit and schism, the author paints a negative portrait of women in which they are almost always subject to criticism and moral indignation. So, even while the character Miranda is depicted as being the paradigm of chastity and virtue, the fact that romance as a genre and facet of Shakespearean themes is perverted shows that women still inherit a marginalized role, one way or another.Marginalized Women Essay
Whether central or secondary, romance or womanly roles are a common facet of Shakespeare’s plays. Even when love, romance and womanhood is not related to the central issue in the story, women are marginalized. The author finds opportunity to create problems or moral issues at the expense of women. This is analogous to a comedian making jokes in which a secondary theme or detail always oppresses a certain demographic. Nonetheless, it is indicative of the essential role that women did play in the aforementioned plays. Even when the play takes the form of a comedy or tragedy, women are subjected to personifications that express negative traits. Whereas masculinity can embrace many different traits and values, the final analysis of women among the plays represented a clear polarization in terms of broad literary themes; in short, women represent “the opposition between romance and reason” (Salingar, 120). Of course, the latter refers to logic, manliness and clear thinking while the former is indicative of clouded judgment, lust, treachery and womanhood.Marginalized Women Essay
Even when utilized as a secondary theme, womanhood was ultimately degraded as a consequent. This drastically affected women’s roles because their behavioral patterns within the story did not matter. In effect, if the whole concept of being a woman is implicitly or explicitly tied into the play as a core theme, then it is irrelevant if the woman carries herself with piety and justice. The cultural connotations of love, romance and eroticism as being associated with the female sphere of behavior still taint the viewer or reader’s perspective of women as being in a negative light. Consequently, womanhood in itself is arguably attacked in almost every facet of Shakespeare’s plays that were analyzed. This theme would surely validate the former notion that Shakespeare catered his plots to fit the archetype of male audiences. By depicting women’s actions or qualities as explicit or implicit forms of negative behavior, the role of the woman is wholly marginalized.Marginalized Women Essay
What does this say about Shakespeare?
As we have seen, Shakespeare’s themes arguably suggest that his audience was catered towards providing entertainment for men. The strong use of sexual content for his plays was suggestive of love and desire as a central facet of his work. From there, the womanly associations to romance and love related to stories like Hamlet where feminine traits that Hamlet had were personified as being negative. Lustful depictions of treacherous women like Gertrude epitomized the notion of a sick and incestuous woman who was a character subject to moral judgment. Twelfth Night also utilized sexuality and male frustration as a core theme because power and desire were placeholders for genuine love.Marginalized Women Essay
These womanly attributes were then further perverted as Shakespeare introduced notions of deceit and homoeroticism on behalf of women. Either way, while this may have not been the central facet of the play, women’s roles were surely marginalized. Finally, while The Tempest offered only one woman as a testament of virtue and subservience to men, the theme of romance became an object of attack that still marginalized a core womanly attribute. The consistent negative connotations towards women throughout Shakespearean plays truly glorified the negative perception of women as an inherent literary theme.Marginalized Women Essay
Today, most women in the society are faced with numerous challenges and problems. Some of the major challenges that women face in the society today include gender discrimination and marginalization. Despite various calls by human rights activists and non-governmental organizations to abolish and eliminate discrimination and marginalization of women, there are still numerous reports that indicate that women are highly marginalized in the present society.
Type of assignment
Title of your paper
Marginalization of Women in the Society
This essay will look into details the various ways in which women have been marginalized in the society. It also looks at the negative impacts that marginalization has caused on the victims. The last paragraph gives personal views and suggestions on how marginalization of women may be reduced within the society. It postulates that various approaches and measures that may be taken to prevent further marginalization and discrimination of women.Marginalized Women Essay
Marginality in the Society
Marginalization refers to the act of perceiving or assuming that a particular individual or a group of individuals do not have certain characteristics, qualities or traits that would make them equal to other people in the society. A person who do not have certain traits that the society considers desirable may be marginalized from receiving certain benefits in the society or may be excluded from being involved in certain social activities within the society, for example, employment or getting access to quality education. Individuals who are marginalized in the society often live desperately lives as a result of the discriminations and maltreatments that they receive.
Through marginalization, the society often sets certain limits which an individual can reach or achieve, for example in the workplace, women have been marginalized towards top managerial positions or executives positions in most large organizations. The society believes that men can serve well as senior managers or chief executive officers than women. Due to this assumption, women who might be more qualified than their male counterparts may not be recruited for executive positions in most large organizations because they are viewed as poor managers or inferior beings.Marginalized Women Essay
In February 2010, Oprah Winfrey stated in her television talk-show, The Oprah Winfrey Show that approximately one hundred thousand women in United States of America have been marginalized from various white-collar jobs and executive positions in most large organizations, including state corporations. Marginalization of women in the workplace has resulted into increased discrimination of women in the workplace.
Gender Discriminations in the Workplace
Moreover, marginalization of women has also resulted into dominance of men in the workplace. Today, many powerful positions in most large organizations are dominated by men due to marginalization of women from holding such positions. In my opinion, this has resulted into gender discriminations in the workplace, inadequate utilization of the abilities and capabilities of women and gender imbalance at the workplace. Additionally, most women who get discriminated at the workplace based on their gender often get demoralized and discouraged from working.Marginalized Women Essay
Consequently, they develop low self-esteem, lack of self-confidence and lack of intrinsic motivation, hence may perform poorly at the workplace. This finally results into reduced productivity at the workplace which negatively affects the society as a whole. Marginalization of women in the society has also resulted into reduced number of female role models within our communities. In extreme cases, women who are leadership positions may also be demoted or dismissed from their employments without any solid reason.
In certain communities, especially in Africa and India, women have been marginalized towards educational opportunities, for example, girls are rarely awarded scholarships and educational grants. This has resulted into reduced numbers of educated women in those communities. Most traditional societies view women as housewives who should neither get education nor go to work.Marginalized Women Essay
In conclusion, I would argue that marginalization of person often results from various stereotypes and other preconceived notions that people develop in the society. Therefore, it is important for the society to avoid such destructive stereotypes and assumption about its members. As Oprah Winfrey states in her television talk-show The Oprah Winfrey Show, marginalization of women depicts serious flaws in assumptions that the society has developed towards women. I would suggest that the society should take the sole responsibility to ensure that women are not marginalized within the society in any way or manner whatsoever.
It is the responsibility of members of the society to guarantee and provide women with adequate support they may require in relation to employment, education, policy formulation activities among other roles. The society should make certain that the needs and concerns of women are fully addressed. Gender discrimination and other maltreatments that might be directed towards women should be highly discouraged, condemned and stopped.
Additionally, women should be empowered by providing them with adequate resources such as finances that would enable them start their own business. This would reduce over-dependence of women in the society. Women should also form professional groups where they can share their experiences on leadership and learn from one another.Marginalized Women Essay
In the United States, incarceration is the main form of punishment for committing a crime or felony . Currently, women account for 6%-8% of the national incarcerated population (Kajstura, et al., 2017; Mignon, 2016). As outlined in the Department of Corrections yearly statistical report, 9% of the total population in the state of Michigan’s justice system are females and approximately 15% of the total population in the St. Clair County are females (Washington, 2017). Many women enter the justice system with remarkable histories of physical, mental, and/or sexual abuse, poor dentition, substance abuse or addictions, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and depression (Rich, Cortina, Uvin, & Dumont 2013; Mignon, 2016). Hispanic and the African-American ethnicity constitutes the largest position of incarcerated women and majority of these women are single and often the primary caretaker of their children (Coughlin, Lewis, & Smith, 2016; Fertszt, Miller, Hickey, Maull, & Crisp, 2015).Marginalized Women Essay The age group typically is between 25-40 years of age and the most common punishable crimes are non-felony offenses such as property theft, larceny, fraud, drug trafficking and/or drug possession (FBI, 2015). The average sentence imposed is typically around 27 months in which women are then released back into the community and often without insurance coverage (USSC, 2014). Once released, women experience a heightened marginality and are faced with a variety of economic, social justice and ethical challenges.Marginalized Women Essay
After reintegration into society, women with a history of incarceration endure daunting economic obstacles. Incarcerated women generally have higher rates of learning disabilities, lower rates of literacy, and/or lack a high school diploma which severely positions them at an economic disadvantage (Nowotny, Masters, & Boardmen, 2016).In one large study involving 1,585 state prisons found that 41% of women entered prison with less than a GED level of education (Nowotny et al., 2016). This educational disadvantage is further compromised as many employers are often hesitant to hire individuals with past criminal records and states that allow employers to deny jobs to individuals with a past criminal records. It is also challenging to advance education as many educational opportunities through grants have been severely curtailed for incarcerated individuals. Additionally, previously incarcerated women face rejection when applying for public housing, loans, professional or technical licensing, and even federally funded benefits such as nutritional assistance or food stamps. These economic challenges occur at a time when women are most vulnerable and are at the greatest need of aid.Marginalized Women Essay
Social Justice and Health Care Disparities
Social justice in the health care system implies all people should have equal access to health care regardless of social status. However, health care disparities are shown to be amplified in individuals with past incarcerations, poverty-stricken, substance users, or those with stigmatizing conditions such as STIs, immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV), or depression (Varcoe, Browne, & Ponic, 2013). Many of these conditions and health aliments are highly prevalent in incarcerated women which increases the risk of social injustice. Social injustice is further complicated by the lack of preventative care and treatment provided during imprisonment and the notion that nearly 95% of women leave the justice system without health care insurance (cite). Another social injustice surrounding previously incarcerated women is the stigma associated with imprisonment. Women who experience this stigmatization are less likely to disclose important details to their health to health care providers due to the fear of being ostracized, judged, or being denied services.Marginalized Women Essay
The health care disparities, lack of health care access, and stigmatization curtails social injustice and simultaneously leads to poor health care outcomes, most notably for STIs and depressive disorder. STIs and depressive disorder are two of the most common stigmatizing conditions found in women with a history of incarceration (Javabakht et al., 2014). Multiple studies within the imprisonment facilities consistently demonstrate a high prevalence of chlamydia at 7%-22%, gonorrhea at 1%-7%, and human immunodeficiency syndrome at 1.2% to 1.8% (Javanbakht et al., 2014). Depressive disorder is also highly prevalent for the incarcerated women population. A large systematic review consisting of the U.S. state prisons found that the diagnoses and/or symptoms of depressive disorder ranged for incarcerated women ranged from 9%-29% with a majority of women predicted to develop depressive disorder at some point during the incarceration (Prins, 2014). Dismissal into the community without adequate health care coverage potentiates these serious healthcare conditions and leads to life threatening outcomes.Marginalized Women Essay
Incarceration has many collateral consequences that leads to the infringement of the basic ethical principles. First, incarcerated women may face discrimination from health care providers which encroaches upon the ethical principle of justice (Back, Duncan, Sherlaw, Brall, & Czabanowska, 2014). Health care providers have a duty to treat all patients equally, fairly, and impartially but when unfairness is imposed due to a criminal background, this principle is violated. Another ethical issue that may be infringement upon is confidentiality. As a healthcare provider, it is common code of conduct to maintain a patient’s privacy. However, Michigan Disease Surveillance System (2018) mandates the reporting of specific communicable disease are reported . As noted, STIs are highly prevalent in the incarcerated women most notably chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HIV and must be reported (Javanbakht et al., 2014). Chlamydia and gonorrhea require partner treatment which becomes an ethical issues for health care providers that must ensure the safety of the sexual partner(s) while simultaneously maintaining the confidentiality of the patient.Marginalized Women Essay In addition, the CDC (2018) recommends that HIV positive patients notify partner(s). Currently, there are 24 states that mandate an HIV positive individual disclose this information to a sexual partner (CDC, 2018). This situation also creates an ethical issues for health care providers that again must ensure the safety of the sexual partner while simultaneously maintaining the confidentiality of the patient while also abiding to state laws.
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An evidenced based action plan that specifically targets an incarcerated women’s health care needs is critical for the delivery of high quality, safe, ethical care. Because STIs and depressive disorder are highly prevalent in past incarcerated women, these health ailments were selected as a crucial component to the action plan.Marginalized Women Essay First, all women must be offered screening for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HIV as these STIs have serious life threatening effects if left untreated. A positive result for any STI requires a treatment plan. The chlamydia outcome will be measured by a test-of-cure culture after 2 weeks of therapy to detect treatment effectiveness (CDC, 2014). Gonorrhea test for cure is not recommended unless symptoms persist (CDC, 2018). Education must be given for a positive culture of either STI so that recent sex partners within 60 days obtain a culture for gonorrhea and chlamydia and appropriate treatment as indicated (CDC, 2014). Consensual HIV screening will be offered so that referral and treatment are initiated in a timely manner.
Another plan of action is to provide the PHQ-9 scale as a component of the initial exam. The PHQ-9 is a patient health questionnaire that is utilized for screening, diagnosing, monitoring, and measuring the severity of depression. The nine questions of the PHQ-9 are based directly on the nine diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder in the DSM-IV (Beard, Hsu, Rifkin, Busch, & Bjorgvinsson, 2016). The PHQ-9 is a powerful tool that assists clinicians with diagnosing depression and monitoring treatment response. It has excellent validity and reliability in the primary care setting as a method for the measurement of depression (Beard et al., 2016). The clinician will conduct a clinical interview to confirm the results. This outcome will be measured by follow up appointments with repeat measures of the PHQ-9 screen and a goal of 25% or more reduction from the baseline score (Sui, 2016).Marginalized Women Essay
The final plan of action is to ensure reintegrated women offenders receive counseling and social support services. Early intervention of counseling services helps women identify options for the future, set realistic goals and enhances physical, psychological, and emotional well-being while support groups are valuable as these groups bond women who are experiencing similar struggles. Support groups and counseling may reduce rates of depression and is thought to attribute to reduced rates of reoffending (Prins, 2014). This action will also be measured through the use of patient-healthcare provider collaboration as well as the PHQ-9 screening tool.
In addition to this action plan, it is imperative to uphold ethical principles of confidentiality while following state and local laws for communicable disease reporting as well as upholding the duty to treat all patients equally, fairly, and impartially. Healthcare will be provided in a nonjudgmental proactive method that promotes high quality, safe delivery of care.Marginalized Women Essay
Following incarceration, many women experience devastating economic, social, and ethical challenges making the successful reintegration a daunting journey. It is imperative for the health care provider to be sensitive to the unique needs of incarcerated women and have a well-developed evidenced based action plan in place. The high prevalence of STIs and depressive disorder found in past incarcerated women and the imperativeness of upholding the basic ethical principles helped direct the action plan. Amidst the economic, social, and ethical challenges, this action plan will assist the incarcerated women’s successful journey of reintegration into the community.Marginalized Women Essay
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