Gastrointestinal Tract Diseases Essay Assignment Paper

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Describe diagnosis and treatment of Gastrointestinal Tract Diseases

Gastrointestinal Tract Diseases Essay Assignment Paper

On a whole, any experiences of discomfort, heaviness and bloating in the abdomen after food intake are the symptoms that require specialized medical consultation and further research. Currently, there are a lot of diseases associated with the digestive system, but the most widely spread ones are peptic ulcer, which is a pathological process that occurs with the formation of a chronic defect in gastric mucosa (Woodland and Stubbs 486), and dysbiosis, which is the most frequent microflora disbalance disease occurring in 80% of cases (Guinane and Cotter 296).Gastrointestinal Tract Diseases Essay

The reasons that cause these gastro-intestinal tract diseases typically involve chronic stress, the lack of nutrition regime and balance (long breaks between meals, irregular meals, eating cold food, abuse of spicy and fatty meals, monotonous food ration, hasty food intake), as well as toxic food infections, helminth and viral diseases, smoking, alcohol abuse, use of certain medications (e.g., antibiotics, chemotherapy), other accompanying diseases of the digestive system (e.g., gastritis), a disorder of the nervous and endocrine regulation of digestion, and environmental factors (Guinane and Cotter 298; Woodland and Stubbs 488-90). In the case of peptic ulcer, the infectious nature of the disease has also been widely recognized, as soon as Helicobacter pylori are found in 70-80% of patients with gastric ulcers and 90% of patients with duodenal ulcers (Woodland and Stubbs 488). A much more rare cause could be a Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (Woodland and Stubbs 489).Gastrointestinal Tract Diseases Essay


The main symptoms include visceral eccentric pain and dyspepsia (nausea, vomiting, belching, acid indigestion, impaired appetite, unpleasant taste in the mouth, diarrhea, flatulence, borborygmus) (Woodland and Stubbs 489; Guinane and Cotter 299). In those cases where the pathological process involves a piece of peritoneum that covers the digestive organs (perforated ulcer), peritoneal pain appears, being usually well localized, bearing constant, acute and lancinating character, and worsening in movement (Collen and Benjamin 56). Feces may contain bloodstreaks (Woodland and Stubbs 489).

If peptic ulcer disease is suspected, the following studies are typically prescribed: X-ray of the abdomen with contrast, fiberoptic esophagogastroduodenoscopy, endoscopy, pH-metry, fecal occult blood testing, and detection of Helicobacter pylori infection by bacteria DNA or antibodies to the bacteria (Collen and Benjamin 78-80). Similarly, the diagnostics of dysbiosis includes bacteriological analysis of faecal microflora and enzyme activity testing, as well as ion or gas-liquid chromatography and the study of microflora in the nestis biopsy material obtained during endoscopy (Guinane and Cotter 302; Hemarajata and Versalovic 40-42).Gastrointestinal Tract Diseases Essay

The treatment of dysbiosis is quite a difficult task, since antibiotics mainly have a detrimental effect on E. coli, while Staphylococcus and Proteus are highly resistant. Effective solutions rather imply the application of comparatively longer courses of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, intestinal antiseptics, antimicrobial drugs, and herbal medicine, on a background of functional diet and vitamins intake (Hemarajata and Versalovic 43-45). In its turn, the treatment of peptic ulcer disease consists of much more components (Collen and Benjamin 213-16): 1) health-protective regime (rest, elimination of stress and emotional stress); 2) split meals (5-6 times a day), and a protein-rich diet which corresponds to the conditions of mechanical and chemical sparing; and 3) treatment with medications that reduce the aggressiveness of gastric contents (antacids), with stomach histamine receptors blockers, proton pump blockers, anticholinergic drugs, and medications that increase the protective properties of the gastric mucosa. For destroying Helicobacter invasion, triple therapy obligatory is obligatory (antibiotics, antimicrobial drugs and a proton pump inhibitors or bismuth preparations) (Collen and Benjamin 119).

Primary prevention of peptic ulcer disease and dysbiosis consists in eliminating the possible risk factors, normalization of nutritional regime, and sustaining the health of the body as a whole, which includes compliance with oral hygiene, prompt treatment of teeth and gums, prevention of vitamin deficiency, smoking and alcohol abuse cessation, prevention and treatment of hormonal disorders, graduated exercises, rational organization of the daily routine, as well as throwing out uncontrolled medications intake and self-medication (Collen and Benjamin 304-6; Woodland and Stubbs 490; Hemarajata and Versalovic 48-49).Gastrointestinal Tract Diseases Essay

Works Cited:

Collen, Martin J., and Stanley B. Benjamin. Pharmacology of Peptic Ulcer Disease. Springer, 2011. Print.

Guinane, Caitriona M., and Paul D. Cotter. “Role of the gut microbiota in health and chronic gastrointestinal disease: understanding a hidden metabolic organ.” Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 6.4 (2013): 295-308. Print.

Hemarajata, Peera, and James Versalovic. “Effects of probiotics on gut microbiota: mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation.” Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 6.1 (2013): 39-51. Print.

Woodland, P. J., and Ben Stubbs. “Peptic Ulcer Disease.” InnovAiT: The RCGP Journal for Associates in Training 2.8 (2009): 486-492. Print.Gastrointestinal Tract Diseases Essay

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